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2 edition of Retinoic acid receptors, targets, and effects in Xenopus laevis development. found in the catalog.

Retinoic acid receptors, targets, and effects in Xenopus laevis development.

Michael James Crawford

Retinoic acid receptors, targets, and effects in Xenopus laevis development.

by Michael James Crawford

  • 91 Want to read
  • 14 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English


The Physical Object
Pagination175 leaves.
Number of Pages175
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16445934M
ISBN 10031592733X

  Previous work has shown that the posteriorising agent retinoic acid can accelerate anterior neuronal differentiation in Xenopus laevis embryos (Papalopulu, N. and Kintner, C. () Development , –). To elucidate the role of retinoic acid in the primary neurogenesis cascade, we investigated whether retinoic acid treatment of whole embryos could change the spatial Cited by: In this study, we investigated the effects of two retinoid isomers, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA), on cultured embryonic spinal cord neurons of X. laevis. Both isomers significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth compared with the vehicle by: 1.

Development. Apr;(4) Overexpression of a cellular retinoic acid binding protein (xCRABP) causes anteroposterior defects in developing Xenopus embryos. Dekker EJ(1), Vaessen MJ, van den Berg C, Timmermans A, Godsave S, Holling T, Nieuwkoop P, Geurts van Kessel Cited by:   Nuclear receptor-mediated hormone actions have been shown to be critical for Xenopus laevis development. Retinoids regulate anterior-posterior axis formation of Xenopus embryos (45 – 49). Consistent with this observation, high level expression of the retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors are detected at early stages (from oogenesis to Cited by:

  In particular, Xenopus retinoic acid pathway components are expressed in the developing midface and embryos exposed to an retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist during early orofacial development form a median orofacial cleft. RA ligand binds to a heterodimer of two nuclear receptors most often consisting of RXRs and RARs. These receptors Author: Stacey E. Wahl, Brent H. Wyatt, Stephen D. Turner, Amanda J. G. Dickinson. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is important for multiple aspects of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Heterodimers of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) transduce RA signaling. It is not yet clear how the diversity of receptor combinations relates to the diversity of functions for by:


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Retinoic acid receptors, targets, and effects in Xenopus laevis development by Michael James Crawford Download PDF EPUB FB2

During the early retinoic acid-sensitive period of development, the total amount of xRAR gamma 2 transcript and protein is increased and a highly specific pattern of expression emerges.

During neurulation, the receptor is predominantly found in the dorsal posterior region, in the head endomesoderm, and in the rostral by: Retinoic acid receptors and nuclear orphan receptors in the development of Xenopus laevis Article Literature Review (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Developmental Biology 40(1.

A retinoic acid receptor expressed in the early development of Xenopus laevis Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauet and Christine Dreyer Max-Planck-Institut fiir Entwicklungsbiologie, D. We have isolated cDNAs coding for a putative retinoic acid receptor (RAR) of the gamma-type from a Xenopus laevis neurula cDNA library.

By transient cotransfection of COS cells with an expression vector and a reporter plasmid, this cDNA is shown to direct the synthesis of a retinoic acid-dependent transcription by: A retinoic acid receptor expressed in the targets development of Xenopus laevis Article (PDF Available) in Genes & Development 5(1) February with 48 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Retinoids are a large family of natural and synthetic compounds related to vitamin A that have pleiotropic effects on body physiology, reproduction, immunity, and embryonic development. Retinoic acid (RA) has complex and pleiotropic functions during vertebrate development. Recent work in several species has increased our understanding of the roles of RA as a signalling by: The product targets the c-erbA gene is a protein that can bind to and inactivate cytoplasmic retinoic acid receptors.

The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of inactivating the retinoic acid receptors in presumptive lens ectoderm and to characterize the subsequent lens development in the African clawed frog Xenopus Laevis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases.

The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) which then regulate the target gene by: Introduction.

Retinoic acid (RA), the principal active metabolite of vitamin A, plays fundamental roles in a number of developmental processes ranging from axial patterning and cranio-facial development to patterning of the central nervous system and organogenesis of multiple systems (Ross et al.,Blomhoff and Blomhoff,Mark et al.,Niederreither and Dolle, ).Cited by: 5.

The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) which then regulate the target gene expression.

In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development. Stage-specific effects of retinoic acid on gene expression during forebrain development Article in Brain Research Bulletin 75() March with 1 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Retinoic acid perturbs Xenopus axis formation patteming in embryos of the frog X. laevis. We report here that RA has profound effects on axis specification. In particular, RA prevents the formation of an array of anterior structures, including the brain, cement gland, and heart.

We have uncovered that retinoic acid is a critical regulator of upper lip and primary palate development in Xenopus laevis. Retinoic acid synthesis enzyme, RALDH2, and retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARγ) are expressed in complementary and partially overlapping regions of the orofacial prominences that fate mapping revealed contribute to the Cited by: Since retinoic acid is critical for many aspects of embryonic development, we first asked whether the expression level of rai1 in X.

laevis embryos changes in response to excess retinoic acid. We exposed embryos (at stage 23) to μM of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 h at room temperature followed by quantitative RT-PCR to measure relative levels of rai1 by:   This study investigated the effects of dietary retinoic acid (RA) on frog hindlimb development.

Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) tadpoles were fed a diet supplemented with 0, 1, 10, or μg of RA/g of food for 2 or 5 d at different stages of metamorphosis. Hindlimb deformities were induced in the group fed μg of RA/g of diet for 5 by: Retinoic acid (RA), well known for its teratogenic effects [8], and also as a putative morphogen of the limb [19], was recently shown to abate formation of the eyes in Xenopus laevis [3] presumably through repatterning of the mesoderm [15].

Thus, both artificially low and artifi. Xenopus laevis as a model organism The African claw frog Xenopus laevis is an excellent modelsystem to explore the principles that underlie embryonic development of vertebrates.

Eggs can be obtained easily at any time during the year by inducing ovulation in female frogs upon injection with human chorionic gonadotropin.

Multiple retinoid-responsive receptors in a single cell: families of retinoid "X" receptors and retinoic acid receptors in the Xenopus egg.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Mar 15; 89 (6)– [PMC free article] Sharpe CR. Two isoforms of retinoic acid receptor alpha expressed during Xenopus development respond to retinoic by: Earlier molecular studies in the model species Xenopus laevis have led to a number of important in vivo findings on the function and mechanisms of T 3 receptor (TR) action during vertebrate development.

However, the lack of genomic sequence information, its tetraploid genome, and lengthy developmental cycle hinder further analyses on TR by:.

development such as Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome. We have discovered that retinoic acid (RA) may play a role in the development of the trigeminal nerve.

Inhibition of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) results in trigeminal nerves that become unbundled or defasciculated in the eye : Jeremy Thompson. Retinoic acid and FGF are required for lung development in Xenopus.

A requirement for both RA and Fgf signalling has been demonstrated in mouse lung development [26–29] and we wished to confirm that this requirement is conserved in a pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist [], we were able to show that there is a requirement for RA by: Scadding S R and Maden M Comparison of the effects of the vitamin A on limb development and regenerationin Xenopus laevis tadpoles;J.

Morphol. 91 35–53 PubMed Google Scholar Scadding S R and Maden M Retinoic acid gradients in limb regeneration; Dev. Biol. – PubMed CrossRef Google ScholarCited by: